English Language Teachers' Code-switching in Class: ESL Learners' Perceptions

Research Article

Code-Switching is generally defined as a shift from one language to another by the speaker during the speech. It is a common linguistic phenomenon in Pakistani classrooms. It is considered to have both positive and negative impact. This exploratory study investigated the perceptions of Pakistani students towards teachers' code-switching during English lectures at tertiary level. Students have different attitudes towards code-switching of teachers in classroom. There is a need to investigate whether it is beneficial or malevolent to switch between two codes in an English classroom and how the students view this alternation between codes. The researchers employed 5-point Likert [...]

Machiavellianism and Counterproductive Behaviors at Workplace

Research Article

The purpose of this research is to study the preference towards getting involved in counterproductive behaviors at workplace in relation to the Machiavellianism personality attribute. One hundred and seventy six executive men/women working at supervisory/managerial level having a minimum of three years working experience were selected randomly. The tests administered were: Mach IV Scale and Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist along with demographic sheet. Individuals who have reported high scores on Machiavellianism were found to be positively correlated with a preference for counterproductive work behaviors. Correlation values are found significant at 0.01 level. The data analysis of sub-scales of Counterproductive [...]

Education in Pakistan: Perspective, Failures and Prospects


The basic assumption of this paper is that education, though the most enduring strand of the social fabric, must for clarity of understanding, be seen in the relevant political and economic contextual framework. The political and economic life in a country fosters and sustains education, but these forces are far too strong in impact and can very well work at cross purposes. The story of education in Pakistan that unfolded itself in a span of sixty years had its genesis in India and was a branching out from the same system which came as a legacy from the British. In [...]

Impact of HR Policies on Employee Motivation in Private Schools of Karachi, Pakistan

Research Article

This study investigated the influence of HR policies and practices on the motivation of employees in private schools. Relevant information was gathered from school teachers in Karachi through a questionnaire while the sample size includes 512 responses. The statistical tool applied in this study was partial least square structural equation model (PLS- SEM). Findings showed that compensation, employee empowerment, fair job appraisal, employee recognition and job satisfaction have a positive and significant relationship with the employee motivation concluding that these factors of HR policies motivate employees. This study provided management with the ways to incorporate strategies in order to motivate [...]

Starting an English Writing Center in a Private University

Research Article

Writing centers have long been identified as a supplementary component in process based writing skill development. While writing centers are a common constituent at higher education institutes in the developed world, these facilities are rarely available within the developing academic contexts. This paper revolves around the introduction of writing center facilities at a graduate business school in Pakistan. The study is framed as action research with phases of implementation followed by a feedback mechanism leading to the next phase. Feedback was collected with the help of observation and semi structured interviews conducted with instructors, tutors, as well as writing center [...]