ESL Learners' Writing Skills: Problems, Factors and Suggestions

Research Article

Writing is an important skill for language production. However, it is considered a difficult skill, particularly in English as a second language (ESL) contexts where students face many challenges in writing. Therefore, the present study was conducted with an aim to investigate problems in Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners' writing and factors that hinder their writing skills. It also aimed at obtaining suggestions on how to improve Pakistani ESL learners' writing skills. For this purpose, focus groups of Pakistani English language teachers'and undergraduate ESL learners were conducted. Writing samples were also collected from 30 ESL undergraduate learners to find the major [...]

Teachers' Intention towards the Usage of Technology: An Investigation Using UTAUT Model

Research Article

The purpose of this study is to explore the vital factors that influence teacherís intention to use technology in higher education. PLS-SEM has been used to analyze the data collected from 201 business university teachers. The study strives to examine the impact of eight variables i.e. Performance expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social influence, facilitating conditions, individual self-efficacy, human assisted self-efficacy, Computer Anxiety and attitude on teacherís intention to use technology using the technology acceptance model of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology. The empirical findings revealed that the social influence, facilitating conditions, individual self- efficacy and attitude have [...]

Empirical Assessment of the Constructs: Workplace Engagement, Job Burnout and Turnover Intention

Research Article

There is a growing interest found in the study of workplace engagement and it has become a buzzword in the recent years. It is considered HRM's new best friend which is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. However, its paucity results in job burnout which is characterized by exhaustion, depersonalization and a diminished sense of professional accomplishment. Job burnout usually takes place due to erosion of engagement. Moreover, if the burnout issue remains unaddressed, it will ultimately lead the employees to quit and will make creating a congenial working environment an even bigger a challenge for today's managers. The objectives [...]

The level of Financial Literacy in Pakistan

Research Article

This study examines the level of financial literacy in Pakistan. Financial literacy (or financial knowledge) is characteristically an input to assess the requirement for financial education and explain changes in financial outcomes. The study reveals that the individuals, who have the more financial knowledge, usually save more. It is inevitable for investors and the general public that they possess sufficient knowledge and awareness about how financial institutions and markets work; types of risks and expected return, that subsequently is fruitful for the growth of the economy. The results show that 1) middle-aged and older people are careful in spending their [...]

A Study of Solid Waste Management in Karachi City

Research Article

There is a growing problem of waste management faced by developing countries. Karachi is the biggest city of Pakistan having a population of approximately 24 million. Statistics indicate that on a daily basis, about 12,000 tons of solid waste is generated in Karachi alone, of which forty percent can be found on the city streets. Improper management of solid waste is causing the spread of infectious diseases and environmental pollution. This study examines how the solid waste management process is implemented in Karachi and the challenges faced by the responsible authorities. Solid waste management combines all activities performed in [...]

English Language Teachers' Code-switching in Class: ESL Learners' Perceptions

Research Article

Code-Switching is generally defined as a shift from one language to another by the speaker during the speech. It is a common linguistic phenomenon in Pakistani classrooms. It is considered to have both positive and negative impact. This exploratory study investigated the perceptions of Pakistani students towards teachers' code-switching during English lectures at tertiary level. Students have different attitudes towards code-switching of teachers in classroom. There is a need to investigate whether it is beneficial or malevolent to switch between two codes in an English classroom and how the students view this alternation between codes. The researchers employed 5-point Likert [...]

Machiavellianism and Counterproductive Behaviors at Workplace

Research Article

The purpose of this research is to study the preference towards getting involved in counterproductive behaviors at workplace in relation to the Machiavellianism personality attribute. One hundred and seventy six executive men/women working at supervisory/managerial level having a minimum of three years working experience were selected randomly. The tests administered were: Mach IV Scale and Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist along with demographic sheet. Individuals who have reported high scores on Machiavellianism were found to be positively correlated with a preference for counterproductive work behaviors. Correlation values are found significant at 0.01 level. The data analysis of sub-scales of Counterproductive [...]

Education in Pakistan: Perspective, Failures and Prospects


The basic assumption of this paper is that education, though the most enduring strand of the social fabric, must for clarity of understanding, be seen in the relevant political and economic contextual framework. The political and economic life in a country fosters and sustains education, but these forces are far too strong in impact and can very well work at cross purposes. The story of education in Pakistan that unfolded itself in a span of sixty years had its genesis in India and was a branching out from the same system which came as a legacy from the British. In [...]

Impact of HR Policies on Employee Motivation in Private Schools of Karachi, Pakistan

Research Article

This study investigated the influence of HR policies and practices on the motivation of employees in private schools. Relevant information was gathered from school teachers in Karachi through a questionnaire while the sample size includes 512 responses. The statistical tool applied in this study was partial least square structural equation model (PLS- SEM). Findings showed that compensation, employee empowerment, fair job appraisal, employee recognition and job satisfaction have a positive and significant relationship with the employee motivation concluding that these factors of HR policies motivate employees. This study provided management with the ways to incorporate strategies in order to motivate [...]

Starting an English Writing Center in a Private University

Research Article

Writing centers have long been identified as a supplementary component in process based writing skill development. While writing centers are a common constituent at higher education institutes in the developed world, these facilities are rarely available within the developing academic contexts. This paper revolves around the introduction of writing center facilities at a graduate business school in Pakistan. The study is framed as action research with phases of implementation followed by a feedback mechanism leading to the next phase. Feedback was collected with the help of observation and semi structured interviews conducted with instructors, tutors, as well as writing center [...]