Islamic Beliefs in Compulsory Islamic Studies (Islamiyat) and Cognitive Development: an investigation

Research Article

Islamic Studies or Islamiyat is offered as compulsory subject following the recommendation of Objectives resolution 1949, and constitution of 1973 of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Therefore, all successive governments of Islamic Republic of Pakistan took measures to introduce Islamic learning programs and courses in academics. Apart from other measures of introducing Islam both as a religion and as a way of life, in academia, the teaching of Islamiyat was made compulsory at all three tiers of education aligned with the educational policies 1959, 1972, 1978, 1992, 1998, and 2009. The current study is focused on analyzing the topics of Islamic [...]

An Analysis of Achievement in Science, Piagetian Conceptual Frameworks and Attitude towards Learning Science among Elementary and Secondary School Children in Pakistan

Research Article

This study analyzed the 8th and 10th graders' attitude towards learning science (ATLS), required cognitive skills for science examination questions (SEQ), and patterns of actual cognitive skills (ACS), in accordance with the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (RBT) and the Piagetian Conceptual Frameworks (PCFs). The sample of the study consisted of 564 (boys and girls) 8th and 10th graders of government elementary and high schools in Sindh province of Pakistan. The RBT applied to break down the 8th graders General Science examination questions in terms of Piagetian conceptual frameworks. A Cognitive Science Achievement Test (CSAT) based on the RBT administered to measure [...]

School Council Policy in Punjab: Policy Formulation without Participation of Stakeholders

Research Article

Quality and equitable access to education largely remain mere aspirations for the populace. Despite the earnest efforts and commitment on the part of Government of the Punjab as well as support of international educational organizations, the goals continue to elude all efforts. This research has been conducted with the assumption that involvement of community in the major stages of policy-making in Pakistan is minimal. The study has highlighted the lack of effective community participation both at policy formulation and implementation stages in the Punjab Province. It has attempted to point out the irritants that discourage community participation. The researcher seeks [...]

ESL Learners' Writing Skills: Problems, Factors and Suggestions

Research Article

Writing is an important skill for language production. However, it is considered a difficult skill, particularly in English as a second language (ESL) contexts where students face many challenges in writing. Therefore, the present study was conducted with an aim to investigate problems in Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners' writing and factors that hinder their writing skills. It also aimed at obtaining suggestions on how to improve Pakistani ESL learners' writing skills. For this purpose, focus groups of Pakistani English language teachers'and undergraduate ESL learners were conducted. Writing samples were also collected from 30 ESL undergraduate learners to find the major [...]

Teachers' Intention towards the Usage of Technology: An Investigation Using UTAUT Model

Research Article

The purpose of this study is to explore the vital factors that influence teacherís intention to use technology in higher education. PLS-SEM has been used to analyze the data collected from 201 business university teachers. The study strives to examine the impact of eight variables i.e. Performance expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social influence, facilitating conditions, individual self-efficacy, human assisted self-efficacy, Computer Anxiety and attitude on teacherís intention to use technology using the technology acceptance model of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology. The empirical findings revealed that the social influence, facilitating conditions, individual self- efficacy and attitude have [...]

Empirical Assessment of the Constructs: Workplace Engagement, Job Burnout and Turnover Intention

Research Article

There is a growing interest found in the study of workplace engagement and it has become a buzzword in the recent years. It is considered HRM's new best friend which is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. However, its paucity results in job burnout which is characterized by exhaustion, depersonalization and a diminished sense of professional accomplishment. Job burnout usually takes place due to erosion of engagement. Moreover, if the burnout issue remains unaddressed, it will ultimately lead the employees to quit and will make creating a congenial working environment an even bigger a challenge for today's managers. The objectives [...]

The level of Financial Literacy in Pakistan

Research Article

This study examines the level of financial literacy in Pakistan. Financial literacy (or financial knowledge) is characteristically an input to assess the requirement for financial education and explain changes in financial outcomes. The study reveals that the individuals, who have the more financial knowledge, usually save more. It is inevitable for investors and the general public that they possess sufficient knowledge and awareness about how financial institutions and markets work; types of risks and expected return, that subsequently is fruitful for the growth of the economy. The results show that 1) middle-aged and older people are careful in spending their [...]

A Study of Solid Waste Management in Karachi City

Research Article

There is a growing problem of waste management faced by developing countries. Karachi is the biggest city of Pakistan having a population of approximately 24 million. Statistics indicate that on a daily basis, about 12,000 tons of solid waste is generated in Karachi alone, of which forty percent can be found on the city streets. Improper management of solid waste is causing the spread of infectious diseases and environmental pollution. This study examines how the solid waste management process is implemented in Karachi and the challenges faced by the responsible authorities. Solid waste management combines all activities performed in [...]

English Language Teachers' Code-switching in Class: ESL Learners' Perceptions

Research Article

Code-Switching is generally defined as a shift from one language to another by the speaker during the speech. It is a common linguistic phenomenon in Pakistani classrooms. It is considered to have both positive and negative impact. This exploratory study investigated the perceptions of Pakistani students towards teachers' code-switching during English lectures at tertiary level. Students have different attitudes towards code-switching of teachers in classroom. There is a need to investigate whether it is beneficial or malevolent to switch between two codes in an English classroom and how the students view this alternation between codes. The researchers employed 5-point Likert [...]

Machiavellianism and Counterproductive Behaviors at Workplace

Research Article

The purpose of this research is to study the preference towards getting involved in counterproductive behaviors at workplace in relation to the Machiavellianism personality attribute. One hundred and seventy six executive men/women working at supervisory/managerial level having a minimum of three years working experience were selected randomly. The tests administered were: Mach IV Scale and Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist along with demographic sheet. Individuals who have reported high scores on Machiavellianism were found to be positively correlated with a preference for counterproductive work behaviors. Correlation values are found significant at 0.01 level. The data analysis of sub-scales of Counterproductive [...]

Education in Pakistan: Perspective, Failures and Prospects

Essay

The basic assumption of this paper is that education, though the most enduring strand of the social fabric, must for clarity of understanding, be seen in the relevant political and economic contextual framework. The political and economic life in a country fosters and sustains education, but these forces are far too strong in impact and can very well work at cross purposes. The story of education in Pakistan that unfolded itself in a span of sixty years had its genesis in India and was a branching out from the same system which came as a legacy from the British. In [...]

Impact of HR Policies on Employee Motivation in Private Schools of Karachi, Pakistan

Research Article

This study investigated the influence of HR policies and practices on the motivation of employees in private schools. Relevant information was gathered from school teachers in Karachi through a questionnaire while the sample size includes 512 responses. The statistical tool applied in this study was partial least square structural equation model (PLS- SEM). Findings showed that compensation, employee empowerment, fair job appraisal, employee recognition and job satisfaction have a positive and significant relationship with the employee motivation concluding that these factors of HR policies motivate employees. This study provided management with the ways to incorporate strategies in order to motivate [...]

Starting an English Writing Center in a Private University

Research Article

Writing centers have long been identified as a supplementary component in process based writing skill development. While writing centers are a common constituent at higher education institutes in the developed world, these facilities are rarely available within the developing academic contexts. This paper revolves around the introduction of writing center facilities at a graduate business school in Pakistan. The study is framed as action research with phases of implementation followed by a feedback mechanism leading to the next phase. Feedback was collected with the help of observation and semi structured interviews conducted with instructors, tutors, as well as writing center [...]

The Reliability of Alliances on Korean Peninsula in Post-Cold War Period: Democracies vs. Non-democracies

Research Article

Alliance building has been an important feature of international relations in all the interna- tional systems. During Cold War in international system alliances were formed on ideological basis. Some of them came to an end in post-Cold War, while others exist even today. The US-ROK alliance and PRC- DPRK alliance can be taken as good examples of these alliances. Although these alliances were formed to balance each other, yet the commitments are dependent upon the form of government in each of the ally state, in the wake of post cold war. This article examines the alliance formation through theoretical prism [...]

The Writing Needs of Business Students: A Teacher's Perception in an EFL Context

Research Article

The proficiency in writing skills is the most basic and important skill to achieve success in academics. Therefore, not only to ace the exams but also to perform better the students need to develop and improve their writing skills, especially in an EFL environment. Here the perception of teachers regarding the writing needs of business studentsí matter a lot, as they design their course and teaching materials according to the specific writing needs of the students. Hence, to improve the writing skills of students, it is imperative to determine their writing needs and then employ various strategies, which cater to [...]

Syntactic Errors in Pakistani Undergraduate Students' Written English

Research Article

This paper investigated the syntactic errors prevalent in Pakistani undergraduate studentsí written English. It also sought to outline the possible causes of these errors. The study employed content analysis by basing it on Corderís error analysis methodology to accomplish the research objectives. The study was conducted at a renowned private university. Participants for the study were those BS first year students who had obtained their higher secondary school certificate from Karachi Intermediate Examinations Board. The writing samples of eighty eight o students from this group were obtained. The corpus was then analyzed to discover the syntactic errors, and determine their [...]

Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Factors Affecting English Essay Writing of O'level Students

Research Article

The aim of this empirical study is to explore O level English language teachersí perceptions regarding teaching practices and methods used in teaching English essay writing. The population of study comprised O Level English language teachers (N=131) schools of Karachi. Through simple random sampling technique, data were collected from (n=58) participant schools which forms approximately 44% of the targeted population. Total sample size was n=73 (n=22 male and n=51 female) teachers. To carry out the cross sectional survey of the chosen sample, two instruments i.e., Factors Affecting English Essay Writing for Teachers (FAEWT) and teachersí structured interviews were developed [...]

Feminist Assumptions and False Promises of Peace: A case study of India and Pakistan

Research Article

Current paper elucidates about War and peace the two basic elements of international politics. Starting with the debates among scholars of the subject, the paper argue critically the shortcomings of feminist school of thought over their assumption of peace and prevention of war through gendered politics. The theme of the paper is that, the gender either feminity in particular or masculinity in general have no impact on politics, both the domestic and international one. The international politics is driven by the national interest and regulatory force is beyond genderís control. This argument is applied and testified in two south Asian [...]

Principals' Leadership and Human Resource Development in Schools of Pakistan: An Exploratory Study

Research Article

This study strives to explore a Private Schoolsí System (PSS) leadership beliefs and practices in foregrounding human resource development in the fields of professional development and performance management at its six dimensions of the human, the professional,the organizational, the political, the moral and the managerial in schools. The study begins by providing a multi-disciplinary review of school leadership and human resource development, based on a framework for understanding how school leadership can help organizations accomplish their goals. Using a quantitative study paradigm, the paper aims to provide a detailed description of the beliefs and practices of leadership personnel in [...]

Determinants of Teacher's Job Satisfaction: Evidence from the Primary and Secondary Schools of Karachi

Research Article

Teacherís job satisfaction has been considered a very important element in the training and development of pupils in their early academic years. This study investigates the impact of five determinants of the teacherís job satisfaction in the context of primary and secondary schools when controlling for their age, gender, experience, marital status and education. These five determinants include occupational stress, empowerment, interpersonal relationships, working conditions and self-efficacy. A sample of 280 respondents is drawn from school teachers of Karachi. Principal component and hierarchical multiple regression analyses with Ďforwardí method are used to analyze the data. With exception of self-efficacy, the [...]

Investigating the relationship among Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence - Evidence from Teachers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

Research Article

The subject study is aimed to investigate relationship among three different factors associated with secondary level teachers including organizational commitment, job satisfaction and emotional intelligence in Pakistan. Additionally the subject study is aimed to investigate role of age and gender in determining these aspects among selected audience. In order to achieve said objectives, sample of 150 teachers at secondary level is selected by using stratified random sampling with proportionate allocation to each stratum. Field survey has been conducted during course of subject study, and results are based on research type of ex post facto in which structured questionnaire is used [...]

Oral Communication Apprehension Among Undergraduate Engineering Students in Pakistan

Research Article

This paper investigates the levels of oral communication anxiety of undergraduate engineering students in Pakistan. The data was collected from four departments of the university. McCroskeyís (1978) Oral Communication Apprehension (OCA) Survey Instrument was adopted for this study. The questionnaire was translated into Urdu (National Language of Pakistan) to make it clear to respondents. The data analysis revealed 18% of the sample had high level of oral communication apprehension, 66% faced average level of oral communication apprehension and 16% were in low level of oral communication apprehension. This study also discloses that there is no significant difference in levels of [...]

Impact of Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Behaviour on Students' Performance

Research Article

This study investigated the impact of teacherís subject matter knowledge and their behavior on the studentís performance. Qualified and well behaved teachers help to boost learnerís confidence and involvement in learning activities. In Pakistan, the quality of school level education is continuously deteriorating. It may be because of the reason that most of the private schools, due to their financial constraints, hire less qualified and untrained teachers. The data was collected through a 5 points Likert scale questionnaire. Responses were obtained from the students of secondary and matric classes of three different schools. Data was analyzed using various statistical techniques, [...]

China's Foreign Policy Choices and Domestic Constrains: Maneuvering for Peaceful Rise

Research Article

The paper explains how the Peopleís Republic of China has developed its strategy on three different levels: domestic, regional and global to manage its interests, focusing on the objectives and choices available at the end of China. The purpose to conduct this research is to critically analyze how the objective of peaceful rise is gradually, but coherently in the right direction, by the application of ideological, economic and defense means in well-articulated way. The crux of utilization of these foreign policy instruments, reflects that Confucius-ism and tributary systemís legacy is applied in dealing with smaller neighboring states and four regional [...]

Content Analysis of the Provincial Pakistan Studies Textbook for Secondary Class

Research Article

The paper presents the results of the content analysis of the Pakistan Studies textbooks, of grade IX and X, published by the Sindh Textbook Board (STBB). The content was evaluated against the objectives set by the Federal Ministry of Education. The analysis includes the connections between the selected content and the set framework with additional focus on the quality of the textbook with respect to its printing and publishing styles. An adapted content analysis check-list by March (2009) was used for the study. Results show quite a few similarities between the national objectives and the selected content, however, some differences [...]

Motivation in English Language Learning: A Study of English Language Centers in Hyderabad

Research Article

This study analyzes and determines the socio-psychological aspect of EL learners studying English language overtly in addition to their college/ university education in various language centers in Hyderabad. The study focuses on motivation a contributing factor in second language acquisition, particularly on Gardenerís concept of instrumental and integrative motivations of students. In order to determine the studentsí tendency towards the L2 acquisition 60 subjects of population of 2 renowned English Language Centers were selected randomly and were given them a questionnaire based on Gardner's (1974) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB). The results revealed existing phenomena of learnersí motivation in L2 learning. [...]

Perspectives of Primary School Teachers Regarding Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning: A Descriptive Study

Research Article

This paper attempts to analyze the perceptions and practices of primary school teachers regarding the effectiveness of cooperative learning (CL) method and to identify the challenges that are encountered while implementing CL in schools. Sample was constituted by 65 teachers from a private sector school system with the help of stratified sampling technique. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Data analysis reveals that lecture method is highly used teaching method at primary level whereas teachers use other teaching methods as well, such as lecture demonstration (LD), CL, project based learning (PBL) and [...]

Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Teacher's Performance: A Mediating Role of Monitoring Practices

Research Article

The purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of HRM on teachersí performance in the context of Pakistan. Impact of HRM practices on teacher's performance has been an under-researched area in Pakistan. For the human development of any society the major share of responsibility lies with the teachers of that society, so in this study, we had investigated how HR practices affect the teachersí performance. We proposed a mediation model in which monitoring act as mediating mechanisms that transmits the positive effects of HR practices to teachersí performance. Therefore teacher's performance is an issue that if addressed adequately, [...]

Determinants of consumer's behavioral intention for pirated music in Pakistan

Research Article

This research is conducted with the objective to identify the determinants of customer's purchase intention for pirated music in Pakistan. The research contains Fair Price, Perceived Harm and Ethics as an independent variable to analyze the impact on Purchase Intention which is a dependent variable. The sample size of this study is 350 respondents (including Graduate Students and lay man) who regularly buy pirated music CDs/DVDs in Karachi. Likert scale technique is used in this study. Data has been analyzed through the reliability statistical technique, factor analysis and linear regression analysis. The result indicates that Fair Price and Perceived Harm [...]

Impact of Rewards System on Teacher's Motivation: Evidence from the Private Schools of Karachi

Research Article

This study investigates the impact of five determinants of the rewards system on employee motivation in the context of private schools. A sample of 310 respondents is drawn from the private school teachers of Karachi. The rewards system was measured through five independent variables including salary offered, recognition, promotion, working content, and working conditions. By using exploratory factor and regression analyses, the results show that except salary offer, rests of the four variables have been found statistically significant to predict teacher's motivation. However, the recognition of efforts followed by working conditions have revealed the greatest impact on teacher's motivation. Thus, [...]

Job Satisfaction among the Primary Public and Private School Teachers of Karachi

Research Article

This research set out to explore the relationship between teacher job satisfaction and institutional undertakings within the context of schools located in Karachi Pakistan. 345 questionnaire were completed by teachers from both public as well as private schools. The data collected was analyzed through factor and regression analysis. The variables examined include working conditions, principle's leadership style, workload, collegial support, monetary rewards and career advancement and teacher autonomy. It was identified that all variables except for work load and autonomy were deems significantly as well as positively related to teacher's job satisfaction. [...]